What are models in Laravel?

A model is a class that represents and interacts with the corresponding database table. Models in Laravel provide an eloquent way to retrieve, insert, update, and delete records from the database. They act as an intermediary between your application and your database, allowing you to work with database records using an object-oriented syntax.

Here are the key aspects of models in Laravel:

  1. Eloquent ORM (Object-Relational Mapping): Laravel's Eloquent ORM provides an elegant, expressive implementation of the active record pattern. Each Eloquent model corresponds to a table in the database, and each instance of the model represents a row in that table. Eloquent allows you to interact with the database using object-oriented syntax, making it easy to perform common database operations.

  2. Defining Models: Models in Laravel are typically stored in the app directory. To define a model, you create a new class that extends the Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model class. Laravel uses naming conventions to associate a model with a database table. For example, if you have a users table, you would create a User model.

     namespace App;
     use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;
     class User extends Model
         // Model logic goes here
  3. Table Relationships: Models in Laravel allow you to define relationships between tables. You can specify relationships like one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many. Eloquent makes it easy to retrieve related records.

     // Example of a one-to-many relationship
     class Post extends Model
         public function comments()
             return $this->hasMany(Comment::class);
  4. CRUD Operations: Eloquent models provide methods for common database operations, such as creating, reading, updating, and deleting records. For example:

     // Create a new record
     $user = new User;
     $user->name = 'John Doe';
     $user->email = 'john@example.com';
     // Retrieve records
     $users = User::all();
     // Update a record
     $user = User::find(1);
     $user->name = 'Updated Name';
     // Delete a record
     $user = User::find(1);
  5. Mass Assignment Protection: Eloquent provides a way to protect against mass assignment vulnerabilities. You can define a fillable or guarded property on your model to specify which attributes can be mass-assigned.

     protected $fillable = ['name', 'email'];

    These are some of the fundamental concepts related to models in Laravel. Using Eloquent models can greatly simplify database interactions and contribute to the overall structure and maintainability of your Laravel application.