When a script calls a function, the interpreter adds it to the call stack and then starts carrying out the function.
Any functions that are called by that function are added to the call stack further up, and run where their calls are reached.
When the current function is finished, the interpreter takes it off the stack and resumes execution where it left off in the last code listing.
If the stack takes up more space than it was assigned, a "stack overflow" error is thrown.
Sources: Call stack - MDN Web Docs Glossary: Definitions of Web-related terms | MDN. (2022, September 21). https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Glossary/Call_stack